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Metals, alloys and ores intro

  • Lore:Treatise on Metallurgical Anomalies
  • seven natures of metal



The Helm of Tohan

Adamantium (also called Adamantine or Adamantite) is a rare, lustrous gray or green metal used for making valuable armor and weapons. The ore is very heavy and can be used in alchemy. Adamantium armor is a high quality medium weight armor. It is above the quality of Mithril or Orichalcum, but is inferior to Stalhrim and Ebony. The armor has a high potential for enchantment. Adamantium weapons can harm magical creatures that resist normal weapons. The metal is used primarily by the Altmer in their cultural armor, along with other materials.

The Adamantine Tower and the Adamantium Helm of Tohan are both made from the metal, as their names would imply. Small deposits of Adamantium can be found in the ruins of Old Mournhold.

Adamantite was used in the forging of High Elven arms and armor during the mid-Second Era.[2]


ON-icon-style material-Tempered Brass.png

Tempered brass was used in the forging of Apostle arms and armor during the mid-Second Era.[3]


ON-icon-style material-Bronze.png

Bronze is a soft brownish alloy consisting primarily of copper and tin.[4]

Jewelery.Heavy Bronze Nose-Ring

Bronze was used by Reachmen clans in the mid-Second Era to forge their arms and armor.[5]

Bronze was used by pre-Duskfall Argonians tribes in the forging of their forging of arms and armor.[6]

Bronze is said to easily mistaken for Dwarven Metal, so much so that some craftsmen have been known to create fake replicas of Dwemer arms and armor using bronze.[7]

Crafting Motif 51, Redoran Crafting Motif 74: Pellitine Style

Online:Contraband/Trifles_and_Ornaments#Commemorative_"Broken Shackles"_Medal Bronze medal depicting a set of broken shackles, inscribed "Jubilee Day 572, Lukiul Uxith."

Online:Contraband_B#Bronzed_Apostle_Hand An infrequently observed tradition among the Clockwork Apostles is to enshrine their amputated body parts after replacement.

Online:Contraband_B#Bronzed_Baby_Teeth A jar containing the bronzed teeth of young children, saved as remembrances in the Breton tradition.

Online:Contraband_B#Bronzed_Daedroth_Teeth_Hairpins A set of three bronzed daedroth teeth. Ideal for keeping unruly hair in place and less fashionable rivals in their place.

Online:Contraband_B#Bronzed_Egg_Tooth A prized childhood keepsake, coated in bronze.


An exposed Calcinium seam

Calcinium was a reddish-golden metal used by blacksmiths to forge of arms and armor during the mid-Second Era. Calcinium was smelted from ore deposits that could be found almost anywhere during this time period.[8]


An exposed copper seam

Copper is a dark orange metal used by various artisans and craftsmen. During the mid-Second Era copper seams were commonly found near cliffs and mountains across Tamriel.[9] Mined copper can be ground into dust and refined into small ingots that can be used to create jewelry,[10] household items or tools.[11] Blacksmiths have also been known to use copper as accents or decorations when creating arms and armor.[12][13]

Its earliest know usage dates back to the Merethic Era, when ancient Nordic and Dwemer civilizations used copper in various crafts.[10][14] Copper was used prominently throughout the Clockwork City, from copper wiring found inside in Brassilisks[15][16] to the artificial trees and shrubs that dot the land.[17][18]


An exposed corundum seam

Corundum was a dark orange metal used by blacksmiths and craftsmen. A freshly exposed surface of corundum had a yellowish-orange color and when extracted produces corundum ore. This ore can further be smelted into ingots, but it also be combined with iron ore to create steel.[8] Corundum was a vital component in the forging of Nordic arms and armor during the mid-Second Era, and was widely available.[19] Corundum was relatively common throughout Skyrim in the Fourth Era, and the province was home to several Corundum mines.(events)

Steel plate mail is made by adding steel to molten Corundum. The alloy is stronger than either metal by itself. Corundum is a finicky material requiring the heat from the forge to be steady and not vary much....Lore:Heavy Armor Forging

Dwarven Metal[edit]

A Dwarven Metal ingot

Dwarven Metal refers to heavy, exotic metals used primarily by the Dwemer. It is usually copper in color, although it can also be yellow, grey, or green. The Dwemer used the metal for everything, from architecture to cutlery. Notably, Dwemer Animunculi are composed of the metal. To the other races of Tamriel, it is primarily of interest for use in smithing weapons and armor.

Dwarven weapons are prized for their ability to resist corrosion and retain their edge, while Dwarven armor has distinctive impact-absorbing qualities. For this reason, Dwemer artifacts are highly prized by adventurers and collectors. The metal itself is rare and precious, scraps of which are prized both by collectors of antiquities and students of metals and enchantments. Only the most skilled blacksmiths have the ability to emulate ornate Dwarven craftsmanship, although the metal is often incorporated into cultural designs. True Dwarven metal was made using an unknown process that many metallurgists have tried to replicate unsuccessfully. The only way to obtain the metal is to melt down existing Dwemer items made from the metal.


An Ebony ingot

Ebony, a rare volcanic glass, is one of the most precious substances in the Empire, mainly found in Vvardenfell, buried in the lava flows from Red Mountain. Veins can also be found in Solstheim, and occasionally on mainland Skyrim. Raw ebony itself is an extremely hard, durable, black glass-like substance. It is said to be the crystallized blood of a god or gods, Lorkhan in particular. It is protected by Imperial law, and may not be mined or exported without an Imperial charter. Settlements such as Caldera and Raven Rock once depended on the mining of ebony.

Ebony was a dark gray metal used by blacksmiths to forge of arms and armor during the mid-Second Era. Ebony was smelted from ore deposits that could be found almost anywhere during this time period.[20] (...Make note about blood of a god conflict!")

Ebony can only be worked when heated. It will develop small cracks that eventually shatter the material if hammered cold. Unlike most other armors, Ebony will not alloy with iron. It must be used pure....Lore:Heavy Armor Forging


An exposed electrum seam


An exposed galatite deposit

Galatite was a pinkish metal used by blacksmiths to forge of arms and armor during the mid-Second Era. Galatite was smelted from ore deposits that could be found almost anywhere during this time period.[21]


A gold Septim (4th Era)


An exposed iron deposit

Iron is the most commonly used metal in Tamriel. It is dark grey in color, and has a wide range of uses in blacksmithing. Its abundance makes the metal ideal for creating mundane items like nails or containers. Weapons and armor made from iron are easy to produce, but vastly inferior to equipment made from most other metals. Iron can be converted to steel, either through refinement of high-quality ore or through the creation of an alloy when combined with corundum. It can also be used in alchemy to produce a slowfall effect or magically transmuted into silver.

Several different varieties of iron exist. High Iron is a high-quality ore which can be smelted directly to steel. Bog Iron can be found as small nodules in ferrous peat, and is prized for its resistance to rust. Cold Iron is found in the mountains of Skyrim; it retains a chill even after forging, and holds enchantments very well. An alloy made of cold iron and ebony is used in Coldharbour architecture, notably in the forging of the Dark Anchors. Pig Iron is a brittle iron created during the smelting process. Despite its name, Meteoric Iron is not related to the common metal.

Liquid Silver[edit]

Madness Ore[edit]

An exposed Madness ore deposit

Madness Ore (often shortened to madness) is a brown metal found in the Shivering Isles. Deposits occur naturally in ancient ruins left behind by previous Greymarches, where the spirits of ancient souls become trapped in the ore. Madness ore smithing is an ancient art of the mortal inhabitants of the realm. The master smith of Crucible has the ability to make heavy madness weapons and armor. Before the master dies, he will hide matrices throughout the realm and train an apprentice to continue the tradition. Grummites are also known to collect shards of the ore.

Madness matrices are hidden throughout the Isles to soak up the magical essence of the realm. Using a matrix will produce an enchanted piece of equipment. The quality and enchantment power varies greatly between pieces of madness equipment, and is divided into eight grades: impure, unpolished, lesser, a standard grade, fine, very fine, grand and perfect. Impure madness equipment is little better than crude iron, while perfect madness equipment rivals even ebony or Daedric items.

Like many things in the Shivering Isles, madness ore smithing has a polar opposite: amber. Heavy madness equipment is associated with Dementia, while lightweight amber equipment is aligned with Mania. The madness ore smith of Crucible is bitter rivals with the amber smith of Bliss, both of whom vie to become the master smith of New Sheoth. Oddly, the Duke of Dementia Syl had in her possession a hammer called Nerveshatter that consists of a union between amber and madness ore.


A piece of Malachite ore

Malachite, commonly known as glass, is a rare, volcanic, milky translucent green crystal, used in creating strong but lightweight metallic Altmer armor and weapons. It is similar to ebony, but is less durable and more lightweight. It bears no relation to the common, brittle glass used in windows and ornaments, as it is far stronger and has a much higher melting point. It is most commonly found in Morrowind on the volcanic island of Vvardenfell, but ore veins can also be found in Skyrim.

Hammer blows struck across the grain run the risk of shattering the armor. Lore:Light Armor Forging

Meteoric Iron[edit]

ON-icon-stolen-Periapt of Elinhir.png

Meteoric Iron is a variety of Aetherial Fragment. It is the most common fragment to fall to Nirn. All known samples of the metal are a rusty brown in color. It is prized by armorers and enchanters for its properties in the forging of enchanted weapons and armors. The Ayleids, known for harnessing Aetherial Fragments, incorporated the metal into their architecture. As such, it is a common sight in Ayleid ruins.

Meteoric Iron is the primary component of Ayleid Wells, enchanted artifacts found dotted throughout Cyrodiil. The wells are often located in the wilderness, far away from known Ayleid settlements, although they can sometimes be found outside Ayleid ruins. It is presumed that they harvest magical power from starlight. It is also suggested, without evidence or support, that they are located at the meeting points of ancient lines of magical power; however, modern arcane arts have discovered no perceptible evidence of such lines of power.

Charged wells radiate magical power back into the sky. Some scholars theorize that they are of religious or ritualistic significance, perhaps a means of offering magic back to the heavens. Those with magical talents can draw magicka from the wells to restore and buff their own reserves of power. No ritual or arcane knowledge is necessary, suggesting that the wells were designed to serve unskilled magic users. Drained wells replenish their magicka at midnight. According to legend, the Chim-el Adabal formed from the blood of Lorkhan within such a well.


A full suit of Mithril armor

Mithril is an elusive and relatively scarce metallic material, known for being light and rather valuable, likely due to its rarity. It comes in two different colors, in place such as Cyrodiil it comes in a shiny silver color, while in the provinces of Hammerfell and High Rock, it is seen in navy-blue. When broken, it can easily be melded together when heated up, unlike chainmail. The only known veins of mithril can be found in the Dragon's Teeth Mountains, where the Kragen Clan harvested the material as one of their main resources, but whether it has been exhausted is unknown.


ON-icon-style material-Molybdenum.png

Molybdenum was used in the forging of Breton arms and armor during the mid-Second Era.[22]


A piece of Moonstone ore

Moonstone was used as the key ingredient in forging Elven armor, after an escaped slave named Ulvul Llaren revealed the High Elves closely guarded secret in the mid-Second Era.

Salt water must be used to quench the hot metal.

Gilded Elven armor, you must also meld in Quicksilver.

Moonstone used in glass armor to give it the right strength. -- Lore:Light Armor Forging

Moonstone was used in the forging of Khajiti arms and armor during the mid-Second Era.[23]


ON-icon-style material-Nickel.png

Nickel was used in the forging of Imperial arms and armor during the mid-Second Era.[24]


ON-icon-style material-Obsidian.png

Obsidian was used in the forging of Dunmer arms and armor during the mid-Second Era.[25]


Pyandonean heavy armor

Orgnium is mysterious light metal used by the Maormer of Pyandonea. It is used extensively in their heavier arms and armor, particularly on cuirasses and pauldrons.


An exposed Orichalcum deposit

Orichalcum was dark green metal used by blacksmiths to forge of arms and armor during the mid-Second Era. Orichalcum was smelted from ore deposits that could be found almost anywhere during this time period.[26]

On the Tel Var Stones: Volume 3

Triumphs of a Monarch, Ch. 10

Guide to the Daggerfall Covenant

Notes on Orichalcum


Orichalcum (also called orichalc) is a gray-green metal used to make weapons and armor. Orcs are famous for their use of this mineral to create orcish equipment. The orichalcum is melded with iron, at a low temperature to prevent the metal becoming brittle. Orcish armor is medium or heavy in weight and usually of superior orcish craftsmanship, although any sufficiently skilled smith can craft it. Orcish weapons were less common during the Third Era and of varying quality. Veins of the mineral are commonly found in Skyrim. Diagna, an avatar of the HoonDing, is called the Orichalc God of the Sideways Blade. He brought orichalc weapons to the Yokudans during the Merethic Era, which allowed them to win the war with the Lefthanded Elves.


ON-icon-style material-Palladium.png

Palladium was used by craftsmen in mid-Second Era to recreate the arms and armor of the Ayleids.[27][28]


An exposed Pewter seam


An exposed Platinum seam


An exposed Quicksilver deposit

Quicksilver was silver-white metal used by blacksmiths to forge of arms and armor during the mid-Second Era. Quicksilver was smelted from a ore deposits that could be found almost anywhere during this time period.[29]

Quicksilver Mine

Quicksilver ore is rare - SR:Edith

Quicksilver melts at a much lower heat than Moonstone.


An exposed Rubedite deposit

Rubedite was high-tier metal used by blacksmiths to forge of arms and armor during the mid-Second Era. Rubedite was smelted from shiny dark red ore deposits that could be found almost anywhere during this time period.[30]


An exposed Silver deposit


A sarcophagus packed with Stalhrim

Stalhrim is a rare form of enchanted ice found only on the island on Solstheim. Throughout history it has served various uses. Originally it was used in the burial rituals of ancient Nords. The deceased would be encased in the material as a form of protection, a privilege that was typically reserved for Nordic individuals. It has also served as a crafting material and, with the proper tools and techniques, can be used to create weapons, armor, clothing, and even jewelry.

Stalhrim armor (sometimes called ice armor) can be light, medium, or heavy in weight. It is very protective, and is often made with steel or quicksilver. Due to its innate properties, frost enchantments placed on items made of stalhrim are more potent. In its raw form, it can be used as an alchemical ingredient that induces paralysis and inflicts frost damage.

Stalhrim is often described as being hard as iron and impossible to break by conventional means. The only known way to mine it is with an ancient Nordic pickaxe, made from superior craftsmanship. It has been described as a rigid, blue-white crystalline metal, faceted yet smooth, and unnaturally cold to touch. Working with stalhrim is much like ebony smithing, and can only be performed by a skilled blacksmith.


ON-icon-style material-Starmetal.png

Starmetal was used in the forging of Redguard arms and armor during the mid-Second Era.[31]


Include Skyforge Steel, Dwarven Ebon-Steel.

I respect Eorlund, but he has the good fortune to work the Skyforge. Something about the fires... their steel just holds tighter....Oengul War-Anvil

It's always been said that the souls of the heroes of old are what give Skyforge steel its strength...Eorlund

an alloy of iron and corundum.

High Iron Ore is a light copper color ore with darker brown spots. The nodes are usually located near mountains or large boulders. It can be found in any zone by characters with Rank 2 in the Metalworking passive or character level 16 to 24. When mined, a node yields three to four samples of the raw material, High Iron Ore, which can then be refined into Steel Ingots.

Imperial Steel Armor

You shall use the low-carbon steel to form the core of the sword. You shall use the high-carbon steel to form the skin of the sword.

Much of this knowledge was recorded in steel-plated tomes, such as the Cartulary of the Tamed Dunes

Vokun. And with Atmoran steel imbued with his enchantments, the elves fell before them


we are artisans as well, and through the ages have learned to manipulate steel the way a sculptor would clay

The Dominion longbow may look too slender to be able to drive an arrow through armor, but look again: its winged limbs are forged of a supple alloy known as Lillandril Steel, as durable as it is ductile. Our enemies have learned to fear these bows' deadly darts!

High-quality steel is plated or filigreed with silver because of the arcane effects of the precious metal on the flesh of magical and supernatural creatures. Well-heeded aristocrats and bravos also sport such weapons for their distinctive elegance....Garothmuk gro-Muzgub

The chain and scale medium armors of the Western 'Imperial guard' style offer less protection than the heavy iron and steel plate armors of the Legions, but with a considerable advantage in mobility. The Dunmer bonemold medium armor is generally lighter and more durable than its Western equivalent. The most prized of medium armors, Orcish, is limited in availability and very expensive, but markedly superior, and is the medium armor of choice for nobles and mercenaries in both the West and East....Artisa Arelas

In the West, cheap iron, steel, and silver heavy armor is made in quantity for the Legions, and many are trained in its use. In the East, the expense of the superb ebony and daedric heavy armors limits their use to aristocratic families. Suits of ebony and daedric armor are passed down from generation to generation, and represent a sizable portion of a Great House nobles' personal wealth....Flaenia Amiulusus

Cheap iron and steel shortswords are standard issue for Legion troopers. The Imperial shortsword is a superior Legion guardsman's weapon. Retired Legion smiths settling in Morrowind have popularized Imperial shortswords with the growing Dunmer merchant class and with Hlaalu nobles and their retainers....Garothmuk gro-Muzgub

I prefer working in silver. More skill needed than forging iron or steel....SR:Endon

Occasionally. But an Orc blade is a very personal thing. Anger, regret, pride. All these things are put into our steel. When my daughter Lash chose to leave the stronghold, I forged a sword to channel all my shame and grief. Honor me with a task, outlander. Bring the sword to my daughter, if you see her. It'll be all she needs to know....SR:Gharol

Steel plate mail is made by adding steel to molten Corundum. The alloy is stronger than either metal by itself. Corundum is a finicky material requiring the heat from the forge to be steady and not vary much....Lore:Heavy Armor Forging


ON-icon-trait material-Titanium.png


An exposed Voidstone deposit

Voidstone was dark purple metal used by blacksmiths to forge of arms and armor during the mid-Second Era. Voidstone was smelted from ore deposits that could be found almost anywhere during this time period.[32]



  1. ^ Events of Skyrim
  2. ^ Adamantite in ESO
  3. ^ Tempered Brass in ESO
  4. ^ Enthoras' Journal
  5. ^ Bronze in ESO
  6. ^ Crafting Motif 70, Elder ArgonianConcordia Mercius
  7. ^ Dwarves, v1Calcelmo, Scholar of Markarth
  8. ^ a b Calcinium Ore in ESO
  9. ^ Events of ESO
  10. ^ a b Copper and Onyx Circlet item in Skyrim
  11. ^ Copper Spice Grinder contraband item in ESO
  12. ^ Crafting Motifs 12: BarbaricSeif-ij Hidja
  13. ^ The Improved Emperor's Guide to Tamriel: Black MarshFlaccus Terentius, 2E 581
  14. ^ Dwarven Compass contraband item in ESO
  15. ^ The Fabricated Fauna of ClockworkEndilaril, Naturalist
  16. ^ Brassilisk description in ESO
  17. ^ Fabricant Shrub, Copper item in ESO
  18. ^ Artificial Lodestone Parts item in ESO
  19. ^ Corundum in ESO
  20. ^ Ebony Ore in ESO
  21. ^ GalatiteOre in ESO
  22. ^ Molybdenum in ESO
  23. ^ Moonstone in ESO
  24. ^ Nickel in ESO
  25. ^ Obsidian in ESO
  26. ^ Orichalcum Ore in ESO
  27. ^ Palladium in ESO
  28. ^ Crafting Motifs 11: Ancient ElvesSeif-ij Hidja
  29. ^ Quicksilver Ore in ESO
  30. ^ Rubedite Ore in ESO
  31. ^ Starmetal in ESO
  32. ^ Voidstone Ore in ESO

Note: the following references are not from official sources. They are included to provide a rounder background to this article, but may not reflect established lore.