For most matches, the game board is bisected into two separate lanes. Creatures placed in one lane can only attack other creatures in that lane, although this doesn't limit card abilities.
There are over twenty different lane types, each with a unique effect.
The standard setup for a match is for each lane to be four cards wide, with the left lane having no special rules and for the right lane to be a Shadow lane. Different lane types (and sometimes sizes) can appear in the Story mode matches and in Solo Arena and Versus Arena.
Not all lanes have a special effect. The lane types are indicated by a glowing icon at each end of the game board.
Altar of Silence
When a player Silences a creature, that player summons a 1/1 Skeleton here and gives it Guard.
When a creature is summoned here, double its health.
When you summon a creature here, a random friendly creature gets +1/+1.[verification needed — still in game?]
At the start of a player's turn, if that player controls the most creatures in the lane, 2 damage is dealt to their opponent.
When a player summons a creature with 4 or more power in a Barracks lane, that player draws a card.
All creatures in a Blitz lane lose Guard.
When a player summons a creature in a campfire lane, friendly creatures in the campfire lane gain its keywords.
In a Champion's Arena lane, the first creature you attack with each turn can attack an additional time.[verification needed — still in game?]
After a creature is attacked here, it falls into the water.
The standard lane, appearing mostly on the left side in versus matches. No effect.
When a creature is summoned to a Flanking Lane, friendly creatures in the other lane get +1/+0. This lane is featured during the Chaos Arena event.
Guards in a Fortifications lane have +1/+1.
When a creature is summoned to a Fountain lane, if it has 2 power or less it gains a Ward.
Hall of Mirrors
If a Hall of Mirrors lane has no friendly creatures, a copy of the next creature you play will appear there. If the lane already has friendly creatures in it, they will need to die in order to utilize this duplicative effect.
Creatures cannot be summoned to a Jail lane except by card abilities.
King of the Hill
When a creature with cost 5 or greater is summoned in a King of the Hill lane, it gains Guard.
Creatures here have +1/+0.
As long as a player controls a creature in a Library lane, actions cost 1 less to play.
When a creature takes damage here, give it +2/+0.
Creatures summoned to a Lucky lane gain a random keyword.
When a player plays an action card, a random creature is summoned in the lane with the same cost as the action played.
When a creature moves into this lane, give it +1/+1.
Creatures cannot be summoned here except by card abilities. Each turn, a player gains 1 magicka for each creature they have here.
Each creature summoned in a Plunder lane will be equipped with a random item.
When a non-Reanimated creature in this lane dies for the first time, return it to play as a 1/1.
Creatures here have Regenerate.
Creatures with more than 2 health can't be summoned here.
Shadow lanes are the most common special lane, being the default right lane in most matches. Placing a creature in this lane will grant it cover for one turn, making it immune to enemy attacks. Creatures with Guard won't be covered.
Creatures here have Breakthrough.
When a player summons a creature in a Surplus lane, they reduce the cost of a random card in their hand by 1.
When a creature is summoned in a temple lane, the the summoning player gains one health.
When a creature is summoned in a Torment lane, 1 damage is dealt to it.
Creatures here have Lethal.
When a creature is summoned into a warzone lane, 1 damage is dealt to the summoning player's opponent.
When a creature enters this lane, Shackle it.
At the end of your opponent's turn, a random creature switches lanes.
When a creature is summoned to a Zoo lane, it is transformed into a random animal. This lane is featured during the Chaos Arena event.
Unused Lane Concepts
There are some Lanes in the data (found per data mining), which have names and artwork for the Chaos Arena Event, but weren't used and have no description of their effects: Highly Charged, Inner Fire, and Wispmother's Blessing.