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Alessian Slave Rebellion
Under the leadership of the Slave-Queen Alessia, the enslaved proto-Cyrodiils rebelled against their Ayleid overlords. The legendary nomad-warrior Pelinal Whitestrake dealt the final blow when he killed Umaril the Unfeathered in White-Gold Tower. However, Pelinal died along with the Ayleid king, cut into eighths in mockery of the Divines by the Ayleids, who were obsessed with this number.
The victory, while extremely beneficial to the proto-Cyrodiils, signaled the slow decline of the Ayleid race's power, which would end around 1E 500, after the Late Ayleid Period.
The War of Succession
After King Borgas of Skyrim was killed by the Wild Hunt in 1E 369, a civil war was sparked. Imperial scholars blamed the arbiters of the succession, the Moot, for not choosing Jarl Hanse of Winterhold, who they considered the obvious choice.
The war was disastrous for Skyrim; it lost its possessions in the provinces of High Rock, Morrowind and Cyrodiil, and cities such as Windhelm were sacked. In 1E 420, the Pact of Chieftains brought an end to the conflict, and Olaf One-Eye was named High King.
A series of military expansions conducted by Darloc Brae, the Golden Beast of Anequina. The period is perceived as glorious by the Khajiit, with the loot from the Conquests used to advance the greatest of the Golden Beast's architectural projects. At the height of the Anequine Conquests the borders of his realm went as far as the Strid River in the west, with Khaj Rawlith being the westernmost point, to the Larsius River in the east, encompassing all lands between Arenthia and Rimmen.
The War of the Crag
After the Snow Elves were defeated by the Nords during the Late Merethic Era and driven from Skyrim, they sought refuge with the Dwemer in the caverns of Blackreach. The Dwemer agreed to help, but only if the Snow Elves would eat a toxic fungus which rendered them permanently blind. They betrayed the Snow Elves and forced them to serve as slaves. Generations later, the Falmer rebelled against their Dwemer masters, beginning a long and bitter conflict that raged completely unbeknownst to the Nords living on the surface above. After decades of bloodshed, the war ended with the abrupt disappearance of the entire Dwemer race. The newly free Falmer spread throughout Blackreach and other Dwemer ruins, and eventually began mounting raids to the surface.
The War of the First Council
Also called the War of the Red Mountain. The secular Dwemer waged war against the Chimer Great Houses, as well as the nomadic Ashlanders of Vvardenfell, who had united under General Indoril Nerevar. The Nords of Skyrim under High King Wulfharth also entered the fray, seeking to reclaim Morrowind amidst the chaos and restore the First Empire of the Nords. In the aftermath of the final clash, known as the Battle of Red Mountain, the Dwemer had mysteriously disappeared, Nerevar was dead, House Dagoth was dissolved and assimilated into the other Houses, and a new religion was born revering the living gods of the Tribunal and later cursing Voryn Dagoth, the former High Councilor of House Dagoth, as the devil incarnate.
The war is said to have coincided with the Sun's Death of 1E 668, a cataclysmic eruption of Red Mountain that devastated Morrowind, tainted the skies with ash, and blotted out the sun for a year. Other sources claim the war occurred in or around 1E 700.
The War of the Singers
Upon rising to power in the chaotic aftermath of Randic Torn's death, Emperor Hira attempted to wrestle control of the empire from the people by exterminating the sword-singers. The Singers were few in number and unprepared to join together into an army that could defend their homes and lives. Hira moved swiftly against those Singers who were visibly a part of empire's society. This included Divad Hunding, whose music and fame were so wide spread that Hira sent one hundred of his personal guards to arrest him. They successfully captured him at his home, but one of the guards cruelly struck his elderly mother, killing her. In that instant, the spirit of the Way awoke in Divad, and he turned his own chains into weapons, slaying four guards and escaping.
Divad became a prominent figure in the resistance against Hira, rumored to appear everywhere the emperor's plans went awry. He later approached his father, Frandar Hunding, who had retreated to Mount Hattu many years prior to write down his years of accumulated wisdom, strategy and the way of the Shehai. Ultimately, Divad convinced his reluctant father to him to lead the war against the emperor. When the Singers discovered that Hira was forming his army to invade High Desert, they fled from their camps to the foot of Hattu where Hunding and Divad emerged ready to lead them. The remnants formed into the Army of the Circle, and began to learn "Hunding's Way", his strategies and tactics.
Hunding devised a plan of seven battles, leading the armies of Hira further and further into the wilderness to the foot of Mount Hattu, where the final battle could be fought. Hunding called his plan the "Hammer and the Anvil." With each battle Hunding's Singers would further learn his strategies and tactics, grow strong in the use of the Shehai, and be ready to defeat their opponents in the seventh battle. Hunding's plan worked and the six first battles were waged, each neither victory or defeat, each leading to the next. Outnumbering the Singers thirty to one, Hira and his army maneuvered to the base of Mount Hattu, where the hammer blow was delivered. The battle was bloody, but the Singers were victorious. Less that twenty thousand singers survived, but Hira's army was decimated after losing over three hundred thousand. Unappreciated among the citizenry and no longer welcome, Frandar and his army left for the port city of Arch in the province of Seawind. There they boarded a flotilla of ships and began their great migration to Hammerfell.
The War of Righteousness
The War of Righteousness was a decade-long conflict that led to the dissolution of the Alessian Order and with it the Alessian Empire. The main cause of the conflict is believed to have been internal strife within the Order itself, brought about by the unsustainable expansion of the priesthood. Several of the Empire's territories took the opportunity to distance themselves from the Order or break away entirely. When Western Cyrodiil isolated itself and established an autonomous government, the Colovian Estates, the simmering tension among the Order erupted into open warfare.
While there is no information about how or by whom the war was fought, there are some details about the destruction it caused. Reportedly, half of the contemporary population of the Iliac Bay was wiped out in the violence, and the Alessian Order's great monastic complex at Lake Canulus was razed.
First Akaviri Invasion
In the first major interaction between Akavir and Tamriel, a large Tsaesci armada landed on the northern coast and marched through Morrowind and Skyrim to the Jerall Mountains, defeating all in their path. However, by landing in Morrowind, the invaders had arisen the anger of Vivec, who allied with the Trident-Kings of the Dreugh to attack from behind, cutting off the Akaviri supply lines and their route to the sea. They were brought to a halt by lack of supplies and set up headquarters at the defensible Pale Pass, where they were met by the forces of a united Cyrodiil under the command of Reman.
Reman's army had only begun to advance into the mountains when the entire Akaviri force abruptly surrendered, kneeling before him and saying they had found what they came to Tamriel to seek. Reman integrated many of the Tsaesci veterans into his own armies, and his personal service, and used them to great effect in his subsequent campaigns which resulted in the Second Empire.
The Blackwater War
A military expansion ordered by Reman II, which seized the northern and eastern marches of Argonia, resulting in the formation of the Imperial Province of Black Marsh. While the Imperial forces won several decisive battles in the early stages, their progress quickly stagnated due to the brutal terrain, endless raids, disease, and mysterious disappearances. After several failed campaigns, each employing wildly differing tactics, the conflict declined into a protracted and complex guerrilla war with no clear victor in sight. Ultimately, tribal infighting on the part of the Argonians finally brought the war to a close. Rather than an official armistice, the war simply ended when the Argonians abruptly buried their weapons and went back to their day-to-day lives.
- Battle of Argonia, 1E 2811. A one-sided affair with Argonians suffering significant casualties. The survivors retreated to Helstrom, the impenetrable center of the Province.
- Xi-tsei Massacre, Last Seed 14, 1E 2820. The remnants of General Bucco's fourth legion were annihilated by a massive Argonian war party at the foot of an ancient Argonian pyramid.
- Great Burn, Rain's Hand, 1E 2828. In an attempt to neutralize the inhospitable terrain, Elissia Mallicius ordered a unit of sappers to set fire to a peat bog outside of Stormhold. Unbeknownst to the Legion, the fire spread through a vast underground network and within months the entire province was ablaze. Hundreds of species of unique flora and fauna were rendered extinct and entire tribes of Argonians were lost. The Legion suffered significant casualties, this marked the end of their second campaign.
Four Score War
The Four-Score War took place between 1E 2840 - 1E 2920 and was centered around the border regions of Morrowind, with the armies of the Reman Dynasty facing the Tribunal-led forces of the Dunmer. The war was initiated by Reman II after he had successfully taken over Black Marsh, Reman II died fighting the Dunmer in 1E 2843 and the war was then continued on by his successors Brazollus Dor and Reman III.
The War of the Uvichil
King Emeric of Wayrest had been courting Rayelle, daughter of King Ranser of Shornhelm, when he met and abruptly married Princess Maraya, daughter of the Redguard King Fahara'jad of Sentinel. Ranser was deeply offended, and withdrew his diplomats from Wayrest, surreptitiously raising levies and hiring mercenaries in Rivenspire over the course of a year. Finally, in Last Seed of 2E 566, he swept down from the northern mountains, taking Emeric by surprise and nearly razing Wayrest immediately. Only the efforts of the king's personal guard saved the city, and forced a protracted siege. Ranser's forces were insufficient to take the fortified city by storm, and so the siege dragged on as the tide of the war turned against him. Ranser's aggression was unpopular even among his own nobles, and several prominent houses of Rivenspire withdrew their military support and sued for peace. While internal stresses took their toll, the original Daggerfall Covenant paid dividends, as Camlorn, Evermore, and Daggerfall were compelled to come to Wayrest's aid.
Meanwhile, Emeric was cannily leveraging his diplomatic connections. His recent marriage ties with the Redguards summoned a fleet of fierce warriors across the Iliac Bay, while an offer to restore Orsinium brought the Orcs into the fray. Under Kurog gro-Bagrakh, the old enemies of Shornhelm burned Ranser's holdings and were waiting to prevent the troops' retreat from the advancing Breton and Redguard forces. Caught between the hammer and anvil at Markwasten Moor, Ranser's army was utterly destroyed. Only a select few were able to escape with the king, who retreated to a tor overlooking the smoking ruins of Shornhelm, hoping to make a last stand. Driven to desperation, Ranser turned to dark sorcery, but was murdered during the ritual by one of his own generals. The Crown of Shornhelm went missing during the chaos, and that evil place has henceforth bore the name Traitor's Tor.
Second Akaviri Invasion
Also called the Liberation War by the Argonians. A fleet originating from the Akaviri nation of Kamal, under the command of Ada'Soom Dir-Kamal, invaded northern Tamriel during the Interregnum of the Second Era. For reasons unknown, the fleet, although originating from the east, bypassed the eastern shores of Vvardenfell and Solstheim, instead landing near Windhelm, in the north of Skyrim. Windhelm was taken by surprise and utterly sacked, resulting in the death of Queen Mabjaarn Flame-Hair and her heir, Princess Nurnhilde, who both fell leading their troops. Only Prince Jorunn survived, and he sought the aid of the reclusive Greybeards, who summoned the mythical Ash-King, Wulfharth. With the aid of Wulfharth, Jorunn rallied his troops and fortified Riften, expecting an imminent assault. However, the invaders simply bypassed the city, passing into Stonefalls in western Morrowind. There, on a beach just to the west of Ebonheart that would later be named Vivec's Antlers, Dunmeri troops under the command of the living god Almalexia met and held them, while Jorunn and Wulfharth pursued the Akaviri force into a surprise pincer attack. The fighting was fierce, but the Nord army was overextended, and victory seemed uncertain until an elite Argonian phalanx of Shellbacks led by Heita-Meen reinforced the Dunmeri army, turning a stalemate into a slaughter. With the aid of a tidal wave summoned by Vivec, the Kamal were obliterated by the three unlikely allies.
Jorunn returned home and was crowned the Skald-King of Eastern Skyrim, while the Dunmer freed the Argonian slaves in recognition of their crucial aid. This conflict united three races who had held great animosity towards each other for centuries, leading to the formation of the Ebonheart Pact.
Varen's Rebellion, also known as the Colovian Revolt,, was a rebellion against Emperor Leovic of the Longhouse Emperors. After he had legalized Daedra worship throughout the Empire of Cyrodiil, Duke Varen Aquilarios of Chorrol marshaled the military forces of the Colovian Estates to depose him, triggering a widespread rebellion in 2E 576. Varen based his rebellion out of Bruma, where he coordinated his troops as they liberated Cyrodiil's other cities to further weaken Leovic's control. Meric Renmus pledged allegiance to Varen and was given the rank of general for his loyalty. The rebellion claimed victory in 2E 577, when Varen's forces stormed the Imperial City and confronted Leovic's last legion in a bloody battle that razed the city's Market District. Varen personally dispatched Leovic at the foot of the Ruby Throne before proclaiming himself emperor.
Three Banners War
In the years leading up to the Three Banners War, also called the Alliance War or the Great War, a divided Tamriel had witnessed a series of conflicts and crises that had inspired the different nations of the land to band together into three distinct alliances: the greater Daggerfall Covenant in 2E 566, the Ebonheart Pact in 2E 572, and the first Aldmeri Dominion in 2E 580. The competing ideologies of these alliances set them on a course for war; tensions between them were further exacerbated by the Soulburst and subsequent military aggression of the Empire of Cyrodiil under Empress Regent Clivia Tharn. Each alliance saw the opportunity to overthrow the corrupt Imperial regime and install their own emperor on the Ruby Throne, but also had to deal with the other two alliances. As the armies of the Covenant, Pact, and Dominion invaded Cyrodiil with the goal of capturing the Imperial City, they additionally launched attacks against each other. The war's ultimate outcome is unknown, but all three alliances, as well as the Empire of Cyrodiil, had ceased to exist by the ninth century of the Second Era.
- Battle of Chalman Keep, 2E 582. A notable three-way battle between Pact, Dominion, and Covenant forces at the contested and strategically important Chalman Keep. The Covenant defenders held out against two enemy armies, but ultimately the keep fell to a Dominion invasion force, after which the Dominion crowned a figurehead Emperor from among their warriors.
The Tiber Wars
- Main article: Tiber Wars
The Tiber Wars were a series of conflicts spanning through the second half of the last century of the Second Era, started by the Colovian warlord Cuhlecain and continued by his general Tiber Septim. The results of the wars were manifold, most important of them being the end of the Interregnum with the founding of the Third Empire with Septim as its first Emperor, the proclamation of the Third Era, and the unification of Tamriel for the first and only time in its history.
- Battle of Old Hroldan, 2E 852. Cuhlecain's general Hjalti Early-Beard successfully led his king's Colovian troops and their allies' berserkers into breaking the Reachmen lines, forcing them to fortify themselves at Old Hroldan. The next day Hjalti approached the gates of the besieged city, protected by the winds created by a storm following his trail. Reports say that the ancient Nord art of thu'um was used to shout down the walls of Old Hroldan, after which Hjalti's army took the city with relative ease by force. As a result, he was nicknamed Talos, meaning Stormcrown, by his Nordic troops.
- Sack of Sancre Tor, 2E 852. While his army was distracting the majority of the defenders, Talos made his way inside the fortress of Sancre Tor, capturing the Nord and Breton leaders and making them order their troops to surrender. St. Osla of Chorrol has a statue dedicated to her for her actions in the battle, where she healed the warriors that had fallen in battle. Sancre Tor was abandoned and Talos recovered the Amulet of Kings.
- Battle of Five Bridges. After the initial success of his foes, Tiber Septim commanded his reserves to victory, attacking only after his foes were completely victorious, as advised by his Battlemage Zurin Arctus. Having been lulled into a false sense of security by their victory, Tiber took the enemy army by surprise, routing an army twice the size of his own.
- Taking of the Imperial City, 2E 854. After a siege of the capital, the battlemages of the Eastern Heartlands surrendered before Cuhlecain's armies. Before he could crown himself Emperor, he was assassinated, and Talos was crowned in his stead as Tiber Septim.
- Moth Rebellion, 2E 857.[nb 1]An uprising in the Imperial City. The Third Legion, mostly made out of newly-recruited Colovian peasant boys, was sent from nearby Anvil to quell it. There the Legion earned its sobriquet "The Faithful" while besieged in the Hesod Barracks by the Cultists. After the rebellion ended, Tiber Septim triumphantly reentered the capital.
- Battle of the Bjoulsae. Under the command of Amiel Richton, an Imperial squadron crushed Wayrest's naval power in a surprise dawn attack.
- Sack of Senchal. After the besieged Khajiiti refused to surrender, General Pottreid ordered the Third Legion to attack the city of Senchal, with free reins. Due to heavy civilian casualties, including children, the battle was omitted from officially-sanctioned Imperial history.
- Battle of Black Rocks, 2E 863.[nb 2] The forces of the Aldmeri Dominion caught the Third Legion by surprise and almost completely destroyed it. The remnants of it made the core of the newly created Ruby Legion stationed in Nibenay Valley.
- Battle of Stros M'Kai, 2E 864. Also known as Battle of Hunding Bay by Imperials. Sentinel, Prince A'tor rallied the remaining Redguard Crowns for one final battle. The navies of both sides clashed near the isle of Stros M'Kai in the Hunding Bay. Leading the Imperial New West Navy was Lord Admiral Amiel Richton, who brought in a dragon called Nafaalilargus. The turning point of the battle was Prince A'tor's death by a poisonous arrow from Dram, a Dunmer assassin. Arch-mage Voa tried to save the prince, but due to the strength of the poison he was forced to place his soul in a soul gem and to put his body in a magically induced stasis before being burned by the dragon. After their defeat, the remaining Crowns fled to Stros M'Kai, most of them to the Old Quarter of the city, which was promptly burned to the ground by the dragon, killing them all as a result. Some of the survivors took refuge at the local temple of Arkay. The priests there gave them asylum, hiding the body of prince A'tor in the temple and healing the wounded, only to be forced to surrender the latter to the Imperials. The result of the battle was that the Redguard forces, aside from the Crown-allegiant Restless League, were either completely annihilated or subdued. Following the crowning achievements of his career, Richton was made the Provisional Governor of Stros M'Kai, reigning over the city with terror for the next three months.
- Stros M'Kai Uprising, 2E 864. Led by siblings Cyrus and Iszara, the Restless League came out of hiding and stormed the Palace, with Cyrus himself cornering the Provisional Governor Amiel Richton and the Imperial Emissary Dram aboard a Dwemeri dirigible. Cyrus' sword, enchanted with the soul of Prince A'tor, then killed them both. This act was allegedly the third incarnation of HoonDing.
- Rebellion of Sentinel, 2E 864. After hearing of the Crown rebellion in Stros M'Kai, Baron Volag, leader of the Forebears, came out of hiding and retook Sentinel from the Provisional Governor Senecus Goddkey. As a result of these two rebellions, the First Treaty of Stros M'Kai was signed.
- Sack of Mournhold. One of the several battles that occurred after Septim's legions invaded Morrowind and before the Armistice was signed. The city was razed and the royal family of Mournhold was wiped out, except for the five-year-old heiress Barenziah.[nb 3]
- Surrender of Alinor, 2E 896. Given to the Empire as a part of the terms of the Armistice by the Tribunal, Numidium besieged the capital of Summerset Isles, its fall happening within an hour. Alinor's fall marked the end of the Tiber Wars, finally unifying Tamriel, in turn leading to the proclamation of the Third Era.
- Forebear Truce. After the Crown forces regrouped at Stros M'Kai and even got close to retaking the capital of Sentinel, the Forebears, desperate at the prospect of losing the civil war, asked Tiber Septim for aid. The Empire was to lend its armies to the Forebear cause in return for a swath of holding titles along the southeast border of Hammerfell. After the Crowns were crushed and the Forebear leader Baron Volag went into hiding not a day later, rumored to be dead, the treaty was revised, and Imperial garrisons were stationed across Hammerfell "until such a time as the native rulership can see fit to reinstate itself safely on its rightful throne."
- First Treaty of Stros M'Kai, 2E 864. Following the double rebellion of both most prominent Redguard factions, the Empire was forced to draw a treaty with the rebels, finally legitimizing their rule. It was signed by Tiber Septim, Iszara, and Baron Volag, representing the Empire, the Crowns and the Forebears, respectively. While Hammerfell's status as a province remained, a remark from almost two hundred years later stated that the Redguards felt that they "are part of the Empire, but not a subject."
- Armistice. After the Imperials amassed their forces at Morrowind's western borders and had several skirmishes with Tribunal-led Dunmeri forces, Lord Vivec himself proclaimed that he would initiate peace talks with Septim's Empire. The terms of the Armistice were culturally very favorable to Morrowind, such as the freedom of religion and perseverance of the ancient Dunmeri right to own and trade slaves. Strategically, the Armistice was very favorable to the Empire, most importantly the access to Morrowind's rich ebony mines and to the Dwemeri Brass God Numidium.
The War of the Isle
The province of Summerset was nearly lost under the leadership of Antiochus. King Orgnum of the island-kingdom of Pyandonea attacked Summerset Isle as a result of a political plot of Queen Potema of Solitude.
The united alliance of the kings of Summerset and Antiochus only managed to defeat King Orgnum due to a freak storm. Legend credits the Psijic Order of the Isle of Artaeum with the magic behind the storm and victory, rather than the Imperial Navy.
The War of the Red Diamond
Kintyra II became Empress on the death of her father, Antiochus, in 3E 120. Her uncles, Cephorus King of Gilane and Magnus King of Lilmoth, attended the coronation, but her aunt, Queen Potema of Solitude, was banished after insulting Kintyra in front of the Elder Council. Potema was scheming to obtain the throne for herself and her son, Uriel. Her schemes resulted in a civil war known as the War of the Red Diamond, the name coming from the symbol of the Imperial family. In early surprise attacks, Skyrim and High Rock were easily defeated by the force of Queen Potema. The war was highly contested, but was abruptly decided by the death of Potema's claimant, Uriel III, in 3E 127. While the end of the succession crisis ostensibly brought an end to the conflict, Potema held out in Solitude with an undead army for another decade.
- Battle of Ichidag, 3E 127. Forces under Cephorus defeated Uriel III, who was killed in the aftermath of the battle. Cephorus was crowned Emperor.
- Battle of Falconstar, 3E 127. Contemporaneously with the Battle of Ichidag, the forces of Queen Potema fought the forces of Magnus Septim in Skyrim. Upon learning of her son's capture, Potema flew into a rage and led a successful assault on Magnus' weakest flank, causing Magnus and his army to retreat. Word reached them soon after of Uriel III's death.
- Siege of Solitude, 3E 137. The Wolf Queen, Potema of Solitude, was finally defeated after a month-long siege of her castle. Although not a full part of the War of the Red Diamond, the siege is best viewed as a postscript, as with the death of the entire royal family except Cephorus, Magnus, Pelagius and Jolethe, all possible argument over the line of succession was ended.
The Camoran Usurper's Invasion
Haymon Camoran, known as the Camoran Usurper, a pretender to the Camoran throne of Valenwood, conquered all of Valenwood and Hammerfell with an army of daedra and undead.
In 3E 267, the combined armies of High Rock mustered the greatest navy ever seen, and defeated and killed the Camoran Usurper and his armies on the Iliac Bay and on land.
- Battle of Dragontooth, 3E 253. The defeat of the armies of Taneth and Rihad lead to the fall of southern Hammerfell.
- Battle of Firewaves, 3E 267. The combined armies of Dwynnen, Ykalon, Phrygia, and Kambria led by Dwynnen's Baron Othrok finally defeated the Usurper.
The Invasion of Akavir
Uriel Septim V attempted to invade the continent of Akavir, starting with the Tsaesci Kingdom. The preparations for the invasion begun in the 3E 268, almost immediately after Uriel V took the throne, started off with the invasion of several islands between Tamriel and Akavir and were concluded in 3E 286 when final scouting actions were done on Akavir soil. A special Far East Fleet, the largest fleet in Tamriel's history, was created for the invasion. After that, the Expeditionary Force was sent to Akavir in 3E 288. Despite initial success, due to unusual weather, no permanent supply routes were possible to establish. Early in the winter of 3E 290, the majority of Uriel V's invasion force, including thousands of colonists, were killed and the emperor himself was slain in combat.
- The Far East Fleet, 3E 271 - 3E 284. The Far East Fleet sets sail for Akavir on the way conquering the kingdoms of Cathnoquey, Esroniet, Roscrea, and Yneslea.
- Taking of Septimia, Mid Year 3E 288. Six weeks after Uriel's fleet took off from Black Harbor on Esroniet, they landed on Akavir and took a river port town from the Tsaesci populace that abandoned it as soon as they saw the Expeditionary Force. They renamed it Septimia and it was to be the first colony of the newly founded Imperial Province of Akavir.
- Taking of Ionith, 3E 288. Soon after capturing Septimia, the emperor himself marched along the river and found another abandoned city, named Ionith after it was taken.
- Battle in the northern mountains, Sun's Height 3E 289. The emperor had his legions attack the amassing Tsaesci forces north of Ionith. Even though the Tsaesci were caught off guard and their leader captured, the legions were forced to fall back and took heavy losses during the retreat. As a result, Ionith was besieged and remained such until its eventual fall.
- Battle of Ionith, 3E 290. After contact was established with the Far East Fleet, that was sent to return with supplies, the emperor ordered the army to break through the enemy lines and to fall back to Septimia. Not far from Ionith, on the road to Septimia, the remains of the Expeditionary Force were ambushed. Uriel V and his personal guard, the Tenth Legion, stayed behind to hold off the Tsaesci, while the others continued their retreat. Only two men from the Tenth Legion survived to tell the tale of emperor's demise.
- Battle of Septimia, 3E 290. Two days after Ionith was abandoned, the fleet that had returned with the supplies found the town of Septimia under heavy siege by Tsaesci forces. They drove the attackers away, rescued the survivors and left for Tamriel.
Wars during the Imperial Simulacrum, 3E 389 - 3E 399
Imperial Battlemage Jagar Tharn betrayed and secretly imprisoned Emperor Uriel Septim VII and used Illusion magic to masquerade as the Emperor for a decade. Imperial authority declined under the Simulacrum, resulting in several provincial wars.
The Five Year War
The Five Year War was a war that took place between the Bosmer of Valenwood and the Khajiit of Elsweyr. The Bosmer claim that the war began in 3E 394 when Khajiit bandits started attacking wood caravans headed for Valenwood. The Khajiit claim that the war began in 3E 395 when the Bosmer attacked the city of Torval in retaliation for the bandit attacks. This border dispute soon turned into a bloody war that lasted for 4 years and 9 months. Thus it was named the Five Year War. Eventually, Elsweyr defeated Valenwood and expanded its territory slightly west, taking both banks of the Xylo River.
The Arnesian War
What started as a simple slave revolt in the House Dres lands to the south escalated into a full war between Morrowind and Black Marsh. The cause of the war was the death of a Dunmer trader named Roris, who was later canonized into a saint by the Tribunal Temple. He was captured by the Argonian rebels and when he refused to denounce his faith, he was brutally tortured and murdered. When news of his death reached the rest of Morrowind, war was declared on Black Marsh. Morrowind's armies ultimately defeated the Argonians and expanded Morrowind's territory to the south.
War of the Blue Divide
Named after the body of water separating them, the War of the Blue Divide pitted Summerset Isle against its former ally Valenwood. After a vicious but short war, Summerset defeated Valenwood, gaining several coastal islands as a result of the war. The most notable damage from the war was when the Altmeri destroyed many of Valenwood's harbors.
The only known episodes concerning the war was when in 3E 396 the Bosmeri Parikh tribe began their rampage through southeastern Valenwood against other tribes, receiving aid from Summerset itself. It is unknown whether or not this was the cause of the war.
- Siege of Woodhearth, 3E 397. Summerset Isle surrounded the coastal city with the intent of starving its inhabitants and forcing them to surrender. Since the Bosmer practice cannibalism, the attack was presumed to have been a tactical error on Summerset's part. A humorous contemporary remark stated that "at the end, only one fat wood elf will remain to wave the flag".
The War of the Bend'r-mahk
Invasion of the Battlespire
The Daedric legions of Mehrunes Dagon invaded the Imperial Battlespire, slaughtering the stationed Imperial Battlemages and blocking reinforcements from Nirn. The invasion was suggested by Jagar Tharn to gain the support of Dagon. The Daedric armies retreated back into Oblivion, but the actions of Imago Storm and an apprentice ultimately led to the destruction of the Battlespire.
The War of Betony
The war was caused when Lord Mogref of Betony asked King Lysandus of Daggerfall for protection against pirates and other brigands. King Camaron of Sentinel and his advisors, citing an old contract that suggested Betony was a holding of their kingdom, declared war. Hostilities ended after Lysandus' son, Gothryd, who became king after his father was killed in battle at Cryngaine Field, won the battle and defeated Camaron in single combat. Sentinel surrendered and Betony passed under the control of Daggerfall.
More information can be found in two books, both called The War of Betony. Vulper Newgate's version contains the official history, as written by the victors; Fav'te's book, however, tells the story from the viewpoint of a citizen of Sentinel. The Daggerfall Chronicles also provides a slightly different version of the story, a summary of which can be read here.
- Battle of the Bluffs: The first major battle of the war. Won by Daggerfall.
- Siege of Craghold: The Island of Craghold was besieged by the forces of Sentinel for several days, but the siege was broken by Daggerfall forces under Lord Bridwell.
- Battle of Cryngaine Field: Final battle of the conflict. The battlefield was covered in a dense mist created by Skakmat, and after it lifted King Lysandus was found to have perished from an arrow through either his heart or his throat. His son Gothryd was crowned on the battlefield and led the army to victory.
The Oblivion Crisis, also known as the Great Anguish, was a total war between the Daedra and the population of Tamriel. It began with the assassination of Uriel Septim VII and all of his known heirs. Shortly afterward, Oblivion Gates to the Deadlands opened across Tamriel and Daedra poured out as the result of a fanatical cult of worshippers of Mehrunes Dagon known as the Mythic Dawn. Widespread devastation and casualties resulted across entire provinces. The Daedra besieged Skyrim, and laid waste to the Old Holds. In Black Marsh, the Hist called back many Argonians to fight off the Daedra. The Daedric commanders closed many gates to stop the united Argonians from entering. In Cyrodiil, the city of Kvatch was entirely destroyed. Some Dunmer in the 4th Era claim that the Empire pulled out its forces from Morrowind during the Crisis; however, no troops were recalled back to Cyrodiil from any of the other Provinces during the Oblivion Crisis. nb1
The Empire was near collapse, but Uriel VII's illegitimate son, Martin Septim, ended the invasion with the help of a mysterious hero, but the cost was enormous. Martin, the last of the Septim bloodline, sacrificed himself and the Amulet of Kings to become an Avatar of Akatosh and cast Mehrunes Dagon back into Oblivion. This event marked the end of the Third Era and the beginning of the eventual disintegration of the Third Empire.
- Sack of Kvatch : Gates to Oblivion were opened outside Kvatch, from which a horde of Daedra and a siege crawler emerged to overwhelm the guard and sack the city. Much of the population was killed, including Count Ormellius Goldwine and Saint Jiub. After the city was occupied by the Daedric forces, most of the gates were closed, leaving only one lesser gate blocking the city's gates. This gate was eventually closed by a mysterious hero who would later be dubbed the Hero of Kvatch, who then led the remaining city guard to retake the city.
- Fall of Ald'ruhn: The city of Ald'ruhn was destroyed by the Daedra. In an attempt to defend the city, the Redoran resurrected the Ald Skar Emperor Crab, which also fell.
- Collapse of the Crystal Tower: The Crystal Tower on the Summerset Isle, the bastion of all magical learning before the Arcane University was built, was destroyed by Mehrunes Dagon's invading Daedra, despite the efforts of the powerful Altmer wizards.
- Defense of Bruma: Martin Septim led an army of Cyrodilic city guards to victory over the invading Daedric hordes. A statue was erected within the city's walls, in honor of the lone hero who charged into Oblivion in order to shut the great gate and prevent the destruction of Bruma.
- Battle of the Imperial City: High Chancellor Ocato, Martin Septim, his Blades and Imperial Legionary escorts fought their way through an Oblivion-sieged Imperial City. During this battle, dozens of Oblivion Gates opened up around the City and the Daedric Prince Mehrunes Dagon himself appeared in the besieged city, marking the fall of the barriers between Oblivion and Nirn. The battle ended when Martin Septim, in a desperate last ditch effort, shattered the Amulet of Kings and became the Avatar of Akatosh. The Avatar banished Dagon back into Oblivion, ending the Oblivion Crisis. The Avatar turned to stone, killing Martin, but also leaving a permanent reminder of Martin's sacrifice.
The Accession War
Also called simply the Argonian Invasion. After the eruption of Red Mountain, the Argonians took the opportunity of a weakened Morrowind to invade the region, seeking revenge for thousands of years of slavery, or so one theory states. Some southern parts of Morrowind seem to have been temporarily conquered by the Argonians, and thousands of Dunmer were killed, while others were exiled. They were forestalled from sweeping through all of Morrowind thanks to the efforts of the Redoran-dominated Dunmer army, which had grown substantially following the Empire's withdrawal of troops from the province during the Oblivion Crisis. It is unknown if the Argonians retained the invaded regions or not, but Mournhold - which had been sacked during the Invasion - was back under Dunmer control by 4E 201.
The floating city of Umbriel came from the south up through Black Marsh and southern Morrowind and into Cyrodiil. Several major cities were destroyed or besieged, culminating in an assault on the Imperial City
- Massacre at Lilmoth, 4E 40. Although the Argonians at Lilmoth were possesed, a number of plantations in the surrounding countryside fought against the horde of undead sea creatures resurrected by the city. They were all overrun and the defenders were also reanimated and joined the march.
- March Into Morrowind, 4E 40. A few Imperial Legion patrols attempted to slow the advance of the undead, but were all defeated and either fell back or joined the march.
- Siege of Cheydinhal, 4E 40. The undead advanced into Cyrodiil and overran the city of Cheydinhal. The defenders held the city for a long while but eventually they fell back on the Imperial City. The undead did not occupy the city so local people returned there afterwards.
- Siege of the Imperial City, 4E 40. The undead army advanced on the Imperial City in an effort to take control of the White-Gold Tower, causing mass panic among its citizens. The Imperial Legion attempted to hold the line along the Red Ring Road, but were ultimately driven back to the walls of the city. The Synod and the College of Whispers worked together to bring down the floating city, but also failed. Umbriel was eventually banished from Mundus by a group of heroes.
The Great War
The Thalmor refer to this war as the First War Against the Empire. The Aldmeri Dominion invaded the Empire of Tamriel after Emperor Titus Mede II rejected an ultimatum presented by a Thalmor ambassador. The Dominion forces caught the Empire by surprise and apparently had far better success than planned. Their success apparently encouraged them to go beyond the aim of conquering Hammerfell, and instead they decided to conquer the entire Empire. The Dominion advance culminated in the Sack of the Imperial City, which was under occupation for nearly a year before its liberation in the Battle of the Red Ring. The war ends with the signing of the White-Gold Concordat.
- Sack of the Imperial City, 4E 174. Lord Naarifin's Dominion army surrounded the Imperial City. Titus II broke through the perimeter with his main army and fled north to Skyrim to join with reinforcements under General Jonna. The Imperial City was sacked by the invaders soon after. The White-Gold Tower was burned and looted, and the Dominion committed many atrocities against the city's populace. Unknown to the Dominion, Naarifin attempted to bring about a mysterious Daedric prophecy known as 'The Culling' on behalf of his patron, Boethiah.
- Battle of the Red Ring, 4E 175. Titus II split his remaining forces into three hosts that surrounded the occupied Imperial City. Titus himself was injured by assassins and unable to fight; however, unknown to his troops, his place was taken by the mysterious Forgotten Hero, who donned his armor and led the Legion to victory. After a long, bloody battle, the Dominion army in Cyrodiil was utterly destroyed and the Imperial City recaptured. Lord Naarifin was hung from the top of White-Gold Tower and kept alive for thirty-three days. Despite the resounding victory, Titus II realized the Empire was too exhausted to continue fighting. He negotiated with the Thalmor and signed the White-Gold Concordat, a treaty that gave the Thalmor free reign to stamp out the worship of Talos in Tamriel, disbanded the Blades, and ceded a large part of southern Hammerfell to the Aldmeri Dominion. Critics note that the terms of the Concordat are almost identical to those of the original ultimatum presented by the Thalmor prior to the war.
Hammerfell refused to accept the terms of the White-Gold Concordat and, having been renounced as an Imperial province by Titus II, continues to fight against the Aldmeri Dominion alone. After five years, the war ends in a stalemate with the signing of the Second Treaty of Stros M'Kai. The Aldmeri Dominion withdraws from Hammerfell entirely. Hammerfell remains bitter with the Empire for abandoning it.
- Battle of Roseguard: A battle fought between the Aldmeri Dominion and Hammerfell that culminated at the town of Roseguard.
The Forsworn Rebellion
During the Great War in Cyrodiil, Imperial Legions stationed in Skyrim's region of the Reach and its capital, Markarth, were recalled to help repel the Aldmeri Dominion's invasion, leaving the western region vulnerable to its native Breton population, known as "Reachmen", who successfully revolted and created an "independent kingdom".
To deal with the rebellion Jarl Hrolfdir, the father of future Jarl Igmund, called upon a Nordic militia led by Ulfric Stormcloak to retake the Reach from the Reachmen with promises of freedom of religion. The uprising was ultimately quelled, but not without consequences. Despite the Empire's vows for free religion, the Thalmor discovered the worship of Talos taking place in Markarth, and demanded the arrest of Ulfric and the other members of the Nord militia. To honor the White-Gold Concordat and keep the peace with the Dominion, Hrolfdir was forced to comply to prevent any future invasions by the Aldmeri Dominion. One of the policies he was forced to agree to was the arrest of members affiliated with the Nord militia that helped overthrow the Forsworn. Hrolfdir helped arrest Ulfric and the other members of the militia to prevent another war with the Thalmor. In retaliation, Ulfric Stormcloak refused to observe the agreement and decided to allow the freedom to worship Talos himself when he became the new Jarl of Windhelm, sparking the future Stormcloak Rebellion.
- Battle of Markarth, 4E 174. Reachmen quickly breached Markarth's city gates and annexed the city. Years later, Jarl Hrolfdir, father of the future Jarl Igmund, was killed by the Forsworn.
- The Markarth Incident, 4E 176. Under the leadership of Ulfric Stormcloak, the Nordic militia retook Markarth while inflicting heavy casualties on the Reachmen rebels. When the independent kingdom of the Reach was overthrown, there were executions, including the deaths of some civilians of Markarth who were native members of the Reach. Surviving stragglers of the Reachmen continued to rebel, forming the Forsworn.
The Stormcloak Rebellion
4E 201 -
The Stormcloak Rebellion was a civil war in Skyrim fought between the forces of the Empire, mobilized in western Skyrim, and the Stormcloak rebels of eastern Skyrim, in 4E 201. Many years beforehand, Jarl Ulfric Stormcloak of Windhelm formed the Stormcloaks as his personal army to carry out his agenda. Soon after the young Torygg was appointed High King by the Moot and ascended to the throne of Skyrim, Ulfric traveled to the High King's court in Solitude and challenged Torygg to single combat for Skyrim's throne, in order to secede from the Empire. Ulfric killed Torygg with the Thu'um, after which he stabbed with a sword, and fled the city. He was branded a murderer and traitor by the Empire.
The Imperial Legion under General Tullius moved in to secure Imperial territory as the jarls began picking sides. On the 15th of Last Seed[nb 1], less than a year after the start of the conflict,[nb 2][nb 3] Ulfric and his men were ambushed by the Legion outside Darkwater Crossing in southern Eastmarch. After surrendering, they traveled for two days until they arrived in Helgen for execution. In a twist of fate, the village was suddenly attacked by the dragon Alduin, and the rebel leader escaped. Afterwards, the war escalated, with Nords across Skyrim solidifying their allegiance to either the Empire or the Stormcloaks. The victor of the war is unknown.
- Night of Tears (Late Merethic Era)
- Dragon War (Late Merethic Era)
- Battle of the Moesring (Late Merethic Era)
- The Skyrim Conquests (Circa 1E 240)
- Aetherium Wars (Early 1st Era)
- Battle of Glenumbra Moors (1E 482)
- Battle of Dragon Wall (1E 660)
- Siege of Orsinium (1E 950 - 1E 980)
- Battle of Duncreigh Bridge (1E 1427)
- The Winterhold Rebellion (1E 2804)
- War of Two Houses (2E 559)
- Battle of Wightmoor (3E 253)
- The Firsthold Revolt (Late 3rd Era)
- Sack of Orsinium (Early 4th Era)
- The book The Falmer: A Study states that conflict between the warring sides lasted for decades and ended with the disappearance of the Dwarves. Since they vanished around 1E 700, it is safe to assume that the rebellion began sometime in the seventh century of the First Era.
- As the timeline of Elder Scrolls Online is ongoing, the end-date of the war is the latest "present" date that has been reached within the game.
- Frontier, Conquest — University of Gwylim Press, 3E 344
- The Last King of the Ayleids — Herminia Cinna
- The Adabal-a — Morihaus
- A History of Daggerfall — Odiva Gallwood
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 1st Edition: Skyrim — Imperial Geographical Society, 2E 864
- Rislav The Righteous — Sinjin
- Loading screens in ESO
- Fall of the Snow Prince — Lokheim
- The Falmer: A Study — Ursa Uthrax
- Dwemer Inquiries Vol I — Thelwe Ghelein, Scholar
- The War of the First Council — Agrippa Fundilius
- Five Songs of King Wulfharth
- The Nirnoot Missive — Sinderion
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 1st Edition: Morrowind — Imperial Geographical Society, 2E 864
- Cleansing of the Fane
- The Song of Pelinal, v 7
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 1st Edition: Cyrodiil — Imperial Geographical Society, 2E 864
- Newgate's War Of Betony — Vulper Newgate
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: Other Lands — Imperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
- Legacy of the Dragonguard — Kiasa-Veda, the Chronicler of Blades
- Countess Narina Carvain's dialogue in Oblivion
- The Book of the Dragonborn — Prior Emelene Madrine
- The Blackwater War — Valenca Arvina, Historian-in-Residence at Gwylim University
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: The War with the Trees: Argonia and the Black Marsh — Imperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: The Blessed Isle: Alinor and the Summersets — Imperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
- The Fury of King Ranser — Wafimeles Masteret (Lorekeeper)
- Travails and Triumphs of a Monarch — His Majesty King Emeric
- House Tamrith: A Recent History — Chancellor Regina Troivois, the Department of Interior Affairs
- King Ranser's Tirade — King Ranser
- The True Fate of King Ranser — Serinal Gane, Royal Scribe of Shornhelm
- Shornhelm, Crown City of the North — Lord Wylon, 39th Baron Montclair
- Guide to the Ebonheart Pact
- Heita-Meen Answers Your Questions — Vicecanon Heita-Meen
- The Second Akaviri Invasion — Yngmaer Raven-Quill, Historian Royal of the Bards' College, Solitude
- Jorunn the Skald-King — Helgreir Lute-Voice, Bard of Windhelm
- Events of ESO
- From Argonian to Saxhleel — Vicecanon Heita-Meen
- Unexpected Allies
- Varen's Wall — Midara Salviticus, Historian, University of Gwylim
- County Kvatch Map Tapestry contraband item in ESO
- Longhouse Legion Banner Fragment contraband item in ESO
- Colovian Revolt Forge Yard name and Caretaker Ministe's dialogue
- Aeliah Renmus's dialogue in ESO
- Eulogy for Emperor Varen — Lord Abnur Tharn, Chancellor of the Elder Council
- Pirate Queen of the Gold Coast — Midara Salviticus, Historian, University of Gwylim
- Chronicles of the Five Companions 5 — Abnur Tharn
- Groundskeeper's Letter
- Chronicles of the Five Companions 4 — Abnur Tharn
- Chronicles of the Five Companions 1 — Lyris Titanborn
- The Chorrol Crier
- Fasaran's Diary — Fasaran
- Guide to the Daggerfall Covenant
- The Rise of Queen Ayrenn — Nuulehtel of Skywatch
- Ayrenn – The Unforeseen Queen — Headmaster Tanion of the College of Aldmeri Propriety
- Battle of Chalman Keep card in Legends
- Those Who Stood at Chalman Keep
- The Wolf Queen, v4 — Waughin Jarth
- Brief History of the Empire v 2 — Stronach k'Thojj III
- The Wolf Queen, v8 — Waughin Jarth
- The Madness of Pelagius — Tsathenes
- The Daggerfall Chronicles — Ronald Wartow
- The Fall of the Usurper — Palaux Illthre
- Report: Disaster at Ionith — Lord Pottreid, Chairman
- Brief History of the Empire v 3 — Stronach k'Thojj III
- A Life of Uriel Septim VII — Rufus Hayn
- The Third Era Timeline — Jaspus Ignateous
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: The Temple: Morrowind — Imperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
- Lives of the Saints — Tribunal Temple
- A Dance in Fire, Chapter 7 — Waughin Jarth
- Pocket Guide to the Empire, 3rd Edition: All the Eras of Man, A Comprehensive History of our History — Imperial Geographical Society, 3E 432
- A Dance in Fire, Chapter 6 — Waughin Jarth
- Words and Philosophy
- A Dance in Fire, Chapter 5 — Waughin Jarth
- Events of Battlespire
- Jokes — Butha Sunhous
- Fav'te's War Of Betony — Fav'te
- Lymdrenn Tenvanni's Journal — Lymdrenn Tenvanni
- Dreyla Alor's dialogue in Dragonborn
- Adril Arano's dialogue in Dragonborn
- To Milore from Nilara — Nilara
- The Great War — Legate Justianus Quintius
- Thalmor Dossier: Ulfric Stormcloak
- A Knife in the Dark quest in Legends
- Angarion the Bold's dialogue in Blades
- Dialogue with Cedran
- Igmund's dialogue in Skyrim
- The Bear of Markarth — Arrianus Arius, Imperial Scholar